This article will cover the pros and cons of using virtual memory or a swap file (paging), determining if your droplet already uses virtual memory or paging, the differences between a swap partition and a swap file, information on how to create a swap file, and how to configure the system’s “swappiness” (how likely it is to use virtual memory as well as determining the appropriate size to use).
A quote from the Paging (swap file) article on Wikipedia: (emphasis on the second paragraph for its clear explanation)
“In computer operating systems, paging is one of the memory-management schemes by which a computer can store and retrieve data from secondary storage for use in main memory. In the paging memory-management scheme, the operating system retrieves data from secondary storage in same-size blocks called pages. The main advantage of paging over memory segmentation is that it allows the physical address space of a process to be non-contiguous. Before paging came into use, systems had to fit whole programs into storage contiguously, which caused various storage and fragmentation problems.”
“Paging is an important part of virtual memory implementation in most contemporary general-purpose operating systems, allowing them to use disk storage for data that does not fit into physical random-access memory (RAM).”
Introduction – Requirements and Why
What is it and why would I use it?
Whether you have a 512mb droplet or a 8gb droplet; Arch, Fedora, CentOS, Debian, or Ubuntu; applications or servers/daemons may need more memory (or sometimes more memory allocated) than you have physically. More specifically in our case, what has been allocated to the virtual server to get the job done.
If you’re dealing with any production server, you need to know that if virtual memory is not enabled and your system has no more free memory…then if a program or service – perhaps your web server – needs to allocate more memory, it will fail! Depending on your platform and configuration, this can result in many undesirable or unstable conditions including other applications (i.e. other processes than the one asking for memory) being forced to close to free the needed memory, to it failing and crashing the program – or whole server – entirely.
Because of this, I personally recommend anyone, on nearly any system – be it a droplet, dedicated server, your Windows PC or Mac or even your Android tablet or phone – should have at least a small amount of virtual memory enabled.
How it Works
Virtual memory allows your system (and thus your apps) additional virtual RAM beyond what your system physically has – or in the case of droplets, what is allocated. It does this by using your disk for the extra, ‘virtual’ memory and swaps data in and out of system memory and virtual memory as it’s needed.
You should be aware that reading/writing from disk (even DigitalOcean’s lightning fast SSDs) is at least several times slower than reading/writing from real system RAM. While virtual memory will give you wiggle room, allow more applications/servers to run on one droplet and guard against out-of-memory errors, it is not a replacement solution in cases where you actually need more memory/to upgrade your virtual server.
While the contents of this article may seem trivial to seasoned admins, I feel it is valuable information for anyone using DigitalOcean’s hosting services, especially those new to DigitalOcean, VPS systems in general, or to managing their own servers.
The requirements are pretty simple and this technique should work on all distributions and droplet types – in fact, it will even work on your Android phone or tablet (if you have root & busybox installed).
- a droplet or virtual server, powered on (or a dedicated server, a linux-based system, etc.)
- root terminal access (ssh, vnc, local)
- the commands free, swapon, swapoff, dd, mkswap will be used, and these all should be available on any platform you use with your droplet.
Most platforms automatically use and manage virtual memory and will create either a special swap partition or a file on the system partition automatically during installation with the size usually being based on, or a multiple of, available system RAM, eg. 1024mb swap for 512mb RAM.
This isn’t always the case with virtual servers, including DigialOcean’s droplets.
Pros & Cons – Droplet
DigitalOcean’s droplets use SSDs (solid state disks) which are several times faster than regular hard drives and do not suffer from low seek times (caused by a hard drive’s head having to physically move across the disk to read data) and low IO requests per second. SSDs can read from multiple areas simultaneously while hard drives can generally only read from one area at a time.
While it is never a good idea – especially with web, mail, db servers – to rely heavily on virtual memory, DO’s SSDs help using virtual memory be less painful and more logical.
- Protection against OOM (out of memory) errors, crashes, memory-related system unpredictability/instability.
- Increases available memory to the system and allows more programs to be run concurrently & more safely
- DigtalOcean’s SSD storage reduces VM-associated lag and thrashing while increases paging response times
- Thrashing is a possibility: when the system is busy and actively using on average more memory than is available physically, the VM system is forced to continually ‘swap’ program data to and from disk and in and out of RAM as needed. We have probably all seen the result of this in a Windows PC slightly overloaded with the hard drive seemingly grinding away endlessly. It’s unbearably slow and not fun. It can, however, be avoided with correct configuration and this is one con that is not as bad here – again due to the speed of DigitalOcean’s SSDs.
- Uses disk space, generally depending on system memory. If your droplet has 512mb, I recommend using 512mb-1.5gb for swap; however that is 512mb-1.5gb less space you will have available on your droplet’s disk.
- It is generally recommended and preferred to use a dedicated disk partition for swap; however this is not possible in a droplet and we must use a swap file/disk image instead.
Check if Enabled on your VPS
It is entirely possible your configuration already makes use of virtual memory. The commands below will show you how to determine whether it is enabled or not, and if it is, it’s size and configuration.
Open a terminal or SSH/VNC to your server – these commands are all performed in a terminal or shell.
Don’t forget, to make changes, you need to be root. You can check what user you are logged in with the command whoami. If it does not respond with root or 0, you can type
su to start a root shell.
You can check if your droplet already has virtual memory enabled by typing the “free” command at the prompt in a terminal:
The “free” command shows your system’s available physical and virtual memory.
If you have virtual memory enabled already, you can skip ahead to “A Note About Swap Partitions” and then the configuration section. When enabled, the output will look like this:
email@example.com:/# free total used free shared buffers cached Mem: 361996 360392 1604 0 1988 54376 -/+ buffers/cache: 304028 57968 Swap: 249896 0 249896 firstname.lastname@example.org:/# _
If it is not enabled, the output will look like this:
email@example.com:/# free total used free shared buffers cached Mem: 361996 360392 1604 0 2320 54444 -/+ buffers/cache: 303628 58368 Swap: 0 0 0 firstname.lastname@example.org:/# _
You can also narrow down the output with
free | grep Swap. This will only show the Swap: line, total, used and free VM. (Remember, by default, grep is case sensitive!)
email@example.com:/# free | grep Swap Swap: 249896 0 249896 firstname.lastname@example.org:/# _
Swap Partitions, Swap Files, & Disk Images
A Note About Swap Partitions
Generally, for Linux-based systems, it is preferred to have a dedicated swap partition on your hard disk. Most systems will automatically do this during a normal installation, and if your swap is already configured, it may very well be possible it is setup with a partition. Unfortunately, other than configuring the below sysctl settings, resizing swap partitions is outside the scope of this article.
You can however still use the method presented here to add a swap file and increase available virtual memory above and beyond the partitioned swap area. But if a swap is already configured and managed by the system, additional virtual memory may be unnecessary and it may be better to leave the default settings unless you know what you are doing.
What is a Swap File?
Instead of using a dedicated partition, some systems (especially Windows) will store their virtual memory in a special file. This is also an option when partitioning is not possible or feasible. On Linux, this file is actually a disk image.
What is a Disk Image?
A disk image normally includes files and information about those files, as well as the filesystem that contains them.
Examples include your droplet’s snapshots (which I like to call snowflakes – frozen droplets), a function which creates a disk image of your entire droplet for backup, duplication, migration, etc.
Another prime example is most Linux distributions (or distros) come as disk images, usually in .iso format, which allows you to either mount them or burn them to a disk.
Whatever way you use an image, the important thing to remember is that they store the filesystem information, and as such they can be used just like the filesystem they were imaged from – or recreate it entirely.
Creating the Swap File
In the case of a droplet, we cannot partition our storage, so we need to use a disk image. *NIX operating systems use a dedicated filesystem for swap, this is why as I said above that using a partition is preferred. What we can do is create an empty disk image sized according to required virtual memory, initialize it with a swap filesystem, then turn it on.
First, you need to decide where to put this file. You need to have enough space free on the partition you put it on for whatever amount of MB you use for swap, eg. 512mb of swap creates a ~512mb swap file.
You can use the command df -h to view your mounted partitions and filesystems, as well as their sizes & free space.
I recommend placing this file in /var and calling it “swap.img”. We will cd to /var and create this file, then set its permissions to 600.
NOTE: It is important for security to set the file permissions to 600 so no other users can read the file directly, otherwise system memory could be read or worse.
email@example.com:/# cd /var firstname.lastname@example.org:/var# touch swap.img email@example.com:/var# chmod 600 swap.img firstname.lastname@example.org:/var# _
Now we will size the file. Sizing is important, and the best size will vary depending on your system and use case.
In general, I recommend 1-2x the available system RAM. So, if you have a 512mb droplet, use 512mb-1gb swap. If you have a 1gb droplet use 1gb-2gb swap, etc. This is not a hard and fast rule, for example if you have a 4gb droplet it may be best to use little (512mb) or no swap at all.
It entirely depends on your use, but these instructions are tailored for a 512mb droplet. We will use the command dd to fill our swap file with zeroes or nothingness to stretch it to the size we need. In this case we are using 1gb or 1024mb. This may take a minute.
email@example.com:/var# dd if=/dev/zero of=/var/swap.img bs=1024k count=1000 1000+0 records in 1000+0 records out 1048576000 bytes (1.0 GB) copied, 4.0868896 s, 253 MB/s firstname.lastname@example.org:/var# _
Preparing the Disk Image
And here, we will initialize the swap filesystem.
email@example.com:/var# mkswap /var/swap.img Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 1020 GiB no label, UUID=72761533-8xbe-436l-b07e-c0sabe9cedf3 firstname.lastname@example.org:/var# _
Once that’s done, it’s ready for use!
Enabling and Disabling Swap
Enable your Swap File
We will use swaponto enable it. Upon success there will be no output, but you can check with
email@example.com:/var# swapon /var/swap.img firstname.lastname@example.org:/var# free total used free shared buffers cached Mem: 503596 478928 24668 0 38832 102384 -/+ buffers/cache: 337712 165884 Swap: 1048572 1780 1046792 email@example.com:/var# _
You can use
swapoff /var/swap.img to turn it off.
Enable your Swap File During Boot
Note that swapon only enables the file for your current boot; if you reboot it will not come back online unless you either script your
swapon to run at boot, or change your
/etc/fstab which in most cases is much easier and is the method we will use here.
All you have to do is add a line to your
/etc/fstab file to make it ready at boot. Be careful! This file can break your system if it isn’t formatted correctly or if it’s overwritten. If you put your swap.img in /var, you can copy/paste the below command with no issue. (If you type it, make sure there are two > symbols, using one will overwrite the file instead of appending a line at the end.
firstname.lastname@example.org:/var# echo “/var/swap.img none swap sw 0 0” >> /etc/fstab email@example.com:/var# _